New PDF release: Addiction : from biology to drug policy

By Avram Goldstein

ISBN-10: 0195146638

ISBN-13: 9780195146639

ISBN-10: 0195146646

ISBN-13: 9780195146646

Content material: medicinal drugs and the mind. Neurotransmitters : the brain's personal medicines -- Receptors : locks for the addictive keys -- Addictive habit -- ache and delight -- The seesaw mind : "highs" and diversifications -- Are addicts born or made? the medication and the addicts. Nicotine -- Alcohol and similar medicinal drugs -- Heroin, morphine, and different opiates -- Cocaine and amphetamines -- hashish (Marijuana) -- Caffeine -- Hallucinogens. medicinal drugs and society. Prevention : simply say no? -- Treating dependancy, combating relapse -- 3 classes from the road -- 3 classes from out of the country -- Prohibition vs. legalization : a fake dichotomy -- New techniques for rational drug coverage

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Content material: medicinal drugs and the mind. Neurotransmitters : the brain's personal medications -- Receptors : locks for the addictive keys -- Addictive habit -- soreness and delight -- The seesaw mind : "highs" and variations -- Are addicts born or made? the medicine and the addicts. Nicotine -- Alcohol and similar medicinal drugs -- Heroin, morphine, and different opiates -- Cocaine and amphetamines -- hashish (Marijuana) -- Caffeine -- Hallucinogens.

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Curare did not prevent the action of muscarine, but a plant poison called atropine did. Thus, the receptors on smooth muscle, which responded to muscarine and were blocked by atropine, were called muscarinic receptors. Dale's experiments first showed clearly that receptors were specific; nicotine and curare acted only on nicotinic receptors, muscarine and atropine only on muscarinic receptors. What were the hypothetical substances released from nerve endings by nerve impulses, which caused these different types of muscle to contract?

Remarkably, the second heart slowed, even though its nerve had not been stimulated. This proved conclusively that some substance released by the nerve onto the first heart had slowed it; and that the same substance, transferred with the bath fluid to the second heart, had slowed it, too. Dale and Loewi shared a Nobel Prize in 1936 for their fundamental discoveries about chemical transmission. A few years later, the substance released by nerves in these experiments was found to be acetylcholine, the first of many neurotransmitters to be recognized.

The brain receptors of interest are embedded in the cell membranes that compose the outer sheath of the neurons. The brain of Fig. 1: The principle of competition at a binding site. Here the binding site is on an anti-insulin antibody, and radiolabeled insulin binding is measured by its radioactivity. (A) Radiolabeled insulin alone (black triangles); (B) competition by unlabeled insulin (white triangles). Receptors: Locks for the Addictive Keys \ 39 a rat, mouse, or guinea pig (or of a human, obtained at autopsy) is removed and homogenized, as in a food blender, to break open all the neurons.

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Addiction : from biology to drug policy by Avram Goldstein


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