By Perminder Sachdev
This quantity offers the 1st complete account of the clinical and medical elements of akathisia and comparable syndromes resembling stressed legs syndrome (RLS), different kinds of motor restlessness, and neuroleptic-induced dysphoria. the focus is on drug-induced akathisia and its numerous subtypes. the writer explores its dating to the restlessness attributable to different neurological issues, offers a brand new synthesis of the pathophysiological mechanisms of akathisia, and gives arguments for brand spanking new operational standards for the learn analysis of drug-induced akathisia. innovations for the dimension of akathisia also are mentioned, as are therapy techniques. The e-book can be quite worthwhile for psychiatrists, neurologists, and different physicians looking a greater realizing of those disabling syndromes.
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Extra resources for Akathisia and Restless Legs
In a preliminary study of 66 cognitively impaired elderly nursing home residents, Cohen-Mansfield (1986) used this definition of agitation to describe a range of inappropriate behaviours. Broadly, these behaviours could be subgrouped as being aggressive or nonaggressive, and the author found that the various behaviours were strongly interrelated, with nonaggressive behaviours such as pacing and constant requesting for attention occurring more frequently. The same author and her colleagues (Cohen-Mansfield et al, 1989) performed a further study of 408 nursing home residents in the age range 70-99 years using a nurses' rating questionnaire (the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory; Cohen-Mansfield, 1986), which included 29 behaviours considered to be part of agitation.
Williams (1973) argued that the lack of a linear relationship of nervous habits with either extraversion or neuroticism on the Eysenck Personality Inventory (Eysenck and Eysenck, 1964) was possibly due to idiosyncratic variability in the behaviours being studied, making their measurement less than ideal. Vernallis (1955) focussed on one behaviour (teeth grinding) and found a significant relationship with anxiety. Mehrabian and Williams (1969), on the other hand, suggested that the behaviours may be differentially related to anxiety and neuroticism, with some becoming more apparent during periods of relaxation and social interaction, which may explain the inconsistencies in the literature.
Psychotic disorders Restlessness can be a feature of any of the major nonorganic psychoses but has been classically associated with catatonic schizophrenia. The motor abnormalities were recognized to be intermittent, variable and often dramatic by investigators as early as Kraepelin (1911) and Bleuler (1911). The motor restlessness may be generalized and persistent or interspersed with prolonged bursts of energy that are often chaotic, disorganized and even frenzied. The motor abnormality may be construed as an essential, even a core, feature of the schizophrenic disturbance, or as being either secondary to the distress and frustration caused by the illness or the response of the patient to delusions or hallucinations.
Akathisia and Restless Legs by Perminder Sachdev