By Patrick Saint-Dizier
This publication is an advent to Prolog (£rQgramming in ~ic). It offers the fundamental foundations of Prolog and uncomplicated and primary programming equipment. This booklet is written for programmers conversant in different programming languages, in addition to for beginners in computing device technological know-how, keen to have an unique creation to programming. The procedure followed during this ebook is therefore according to methodological components including a few pragmatic points. The booklet consists of 2 elements. within the fIrst half the main points of programming in Prolog are provided step-by-step. every one new element is illustrated through brief examples and routines. the second one half consists of extra built examples, that are usually video games, that illustrate significant facets of synthetic intelligence. extra complex books are given within the bibliography and may enable the reader to deepen his or her comprehend ledge of Prolog. Prolog was once first designed in France at OJ.A., Marseille, with a particular syntax. now we have followed right here a extra universal notation, outlined at Edinburgh, which has a tendency to be an implicit norm. on the finish of every bankruptcy of the 1st half, there are routines that the reader is invited to do and to check on his or her computer. whole solutions are given in Appendix A, on the finish of the book.
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Extra info for An Introduction to Programming in Prolog
In the example given in the preceding paragraph, the two clauses in the procedure max are mutually exclusive. This is not an inherent property of clauses in a procedure. Each clause is merely one way of defining a property, a relation, a situation, and so on, and there is therefore no reason for the different clauses to exclude each other. Thus a bird, for example, may be defined as Chap~r6. ~wres 45 bird(X) :- f1y(X). bird(X) :- has feathers(X). bird(X) :- has:a_beak(X). It is also possible to group two clauses of the same procedure into a single clause to condense the writing.
This can be expressed as the following rule: bird(X) :- animal(X), has_feathers(X). We assume, of course, that the facts animal(X) and has_feathers(X) are either directly known to the database or deducible from other rules in the system. 3. Rules without Conditions There is a kind of Prolog rule that does not have a conditional component. These rules can be considered to be facts that have some variable arguments. Let us assume that we have a fact base that describes individuals. If it contains the relation know(X, Y), which states that X knows Y, we may then have the following rule: know(X,X).
It fmds X marcel. (4) The value of X is propagated automatically to the head of the rule, where X has so far remained free. The value of X can now be printed. = After unbinding X, the system searches for other solutions. This proceeds in exactly the same manner, with the system continuing its traversal of the fact base from the point at which it last stopped. U sing the same procedure as outlined above, we may pose the "inverse" question: ? grandparent(marcel,X). which will search for the names of Marcel's grandchildren.
An Introduction to Programming in Prolog by Patrick Saint-Dizier