By Dwayne Heard
Written as an authoritative consultant to the concepts of instrumental dimension for the atmospheric scientist, examine scholar or undergraduate, Analytical suggestions for Atmospheric dimension makes a speciality of the tools used to make actual time measurements of atmospheric fuel and aerosol composition.
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Other issues, which are recurring themes in later chapters, are also briefly introduced, for example the calibration of instruments, detection limits, instrument accuracy and precision, and intercomparison of various techniques. The general requirements when designing a major field campaign are also discussed, examples given of major field campaigns mounted around the time of writing, and a case study is provided of the instrument portfolio deployed during a campaign at Mace Head, Ireland. A discussion is also given of long-term measurements, as well as monitoring networks, which provide the backbone of data which regulatory bodies rely on heavily to direct future policy and that provide evidence about changes in our atmosphere and climate.
To sample very clean air, which is typical of the background atmosphere free of human influence, one normally has to travel considerable distances to very remote locations where field stations are situated. 2. g. the Jungfraujoch Sphinx Observatory in Switzerland). High-altitude sites are ideal to avoid interference from water vapour or boundary layer pollution. 3 contains examples of locations where intensive field campaigns have been mounted. A number of ground-based mobile laboratories have been developed for the in situ measurement of atmospheric composition whilst on the move.
Much reliance is placed on global positioning systems to record the precise flight track, and instruments include lightweight instruments to measure O3 and H2 O vapour. Tethered balloons are also quite widely used, with payloads of a few kg, although their altitude ceiling is limited to about 1500 m because of the weight of the tethering cable, but with a winching device the height of the instrument payload can be precisely changed. 4 Aircraft-borne platforms Aircraft are an excellent means to obtain a three-dimensional distribution of trace gases and aerosols in the atmosphere, on account of their high speed, long range and ability to sample a range of altitudes quickly.
Analytical Techniques for Atmospheric Measurement by Dwayne Heard